Water Pollution

What are the main causes of water pollution and how it can be prevented?

Patty (Pei-Yu, Chao)

Approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water and the human body constitutes 70% of water, therefore water is vital and essential for all forms of life. However, water pollution is one of the major global issues in all parts of the world and it has been indicated that it is the giving rise of diseases and death worldwide. The two main causes that account for water pollution are point sources and non-point sources. Water pollution affects almost all living organisms and harmful to the natural ecosystem. Although, access to clean water has been progressively improved over the last decades worldwide, but it is still necessary to develop more specific solutions such as government policies, processing plants and limit chemical use to prevent further contamination.  

Causes of water Pollution
The specific causes leading to water pollution include a wide range of chemicals, pathogens, elevated temperature, and discoloration that results from human activities and factories. Causes of water pollution can fall into two main categories: point and nonpoint sources. Point sources of contaminants are at a specific location or traceable (Harvey, 2010). On the other hand, nonpoint sources come from many different sources that are untraceable (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2010).

First contributing factor of the water pollution is point sources, such as industrial and agricultural works which use many different chemicals that can pollute water. The first main point source that cause of pollution is industry factories, where produces the chemical waste, such as acidity, ammonia and heavy metals. The acidity was caused by industrial discharges like sulfur and nitrogen compounds that produce the chemical gases, and when these chemical gases get into the atmosphere it contributes to the acid rain (Harvey, 2010). Moreover, the ammonia is a...