The Biology Notes

Chemistry ‘The chemical Earth’,

  [pic] There are four main zones in the Earth:


  [pic] The Lithosphere comprises the crust and mantle. Scientists use this Lithosphere to gain mineral and organic resources.
  [pic] The Atmosphere is an envelope of gases that surrounds the Earth in white clouds surrounding the atmosphere consisting of water vapours.
  [pic] The atmosphere is made up of O2, N, CO2, and a little argon, Ne, krypton, xenon and radon.
  [pic] The Hydrosphere consists of the oceans, lakes, streams, glaciers, snow, ice and polar sheets and glaciers.
  [pic] The Earth is a closed sphere that means that matter cant enter or leave the Earth’s spheres.
  [pic] Matter classified at room temp (25C) as:
  [pic] Most of the 109 elements are solid
  [pic] There are two liquids at room temperature:
  Bromine (Non-metal)
  Mercury (metal)
  [pic] Kenetic Molecular Theory of Matter says that all matter is made up of particles that are constantly moving.
  [pic] Solids and liquids are LOW energy
  [pic] Gases are HIGH energy
  [pic] To separate a mixture of:
  Solids of different sizes- Sieving
  Solids and liquids     Filtration
  To obtain solid from a     Evaporation
  Dissolved solid and

  To obtain the liquid     Distillation
  From a dissolved solid
  And liquid

  Oil and water       Separation funnel
  Ethanol and water       Fractional distillation
  [pic] Chemical analysis is a process used to determine what is present in a chemical sample. This can be
  [pic] Qualitative Determines what substances are present in a sample
  [pic] Qualitative Determines how much of each substance is present in the sample
  [pic] Gravimetric analysis is used to determine the mass of each...