Writing Test 1
The reading passage describes Catch-22 as one of the most famous novels in the twentieth century. This novel talks about the military life during World War II in which the protagonist was an air bombardier who hated [loathed] war and killing. At the beginning [At first], Catch-22 did not get a good response because of admiration given to solders after the War II. However, when the anti-Vietnam war became more serious [widespread, aggravated], Catch-22 received attention [much interest] and became very popular among the reader(s).
The listening passage adds that the popularity of this novel makes the expression “Catch-22” generally [widely, commonly] used. In the above-mentioned novel, the main character [protagonist] attempted to avoid a troublesome [difficult] situation (a catch) or in this case a war which he did not want to participate in [to be involved in]. He had to pretend to be insane. Nevertheless, nowadays the expression of Catch-22 refers to a situation in which [where] there is no way out or a good choice to make. The number 22 does not have any special meaning. It is merely a technical problem of the production process.
Writing Test 2
In the lecture, the professor mentions about several advantages of forest fires. His lecture differs from the reading which states that forest fires are destructive to forests and we should find ways of suppressing them. However, the professor believes that forest five suppressions (the suppression of forest fires) results in long-term negative (adverse) effects on forests themselves.
First, the lack (absence) of forest fires enables trees to grow so thickly that small samplings do not get enough and nutrients. They therefore cannot grow fast enough to replace older trees. The point contradicts with the reading passage in that fire suppression is advantageous because it leads to the growing of thickets in the forest.
Moreover, fire suppression affects a rapid increase of wild animal population...