Tma1 Y163

Richard Layard stated “Happiness comes from the outside and within”. Explain this statement , drawing on evidence from Chapters 3 and 5 of the course.

Many factors affect our personal happiness. Richard Layard suggests that “ Happiness comes from the outside and within”, this indicates a belief that happiness can be affected by our own internal processes and outside influences. This assignment will examine evidence that will further explain and enhance the understanding of this statement, looking at internal factors such as positive thinking and optimism, cognitive therapy and the Locus of Control and external factors such as culture, geography, and wealth.
It can be said the way we think about a situation can dictate our happiness. An optimistic outlook has been researched to result in a healthier life than that of a negative thinking pessimist.
Optimists have been found to deal with ill health better than a pessimistic person. A study by Toshiko Maruta and colleagues at the Mayo clinic in 2002 selected a group of 839 that had referred themselves for medical care in the previous forty years. A multitude of tests, including one on optimistic thinking showed that patients had a 19% greater longevity than that of pessimistic thinkers (Maruta, 2002, cited in Spoors et al., 2007)

Happiness can also be a result of life experience and expectations. Past experience can teach us to either expect a little or a lot from life. Habitual negative thinking can cloud memories of happy events or good experiences.
Cognitive therapy, developed in the 1960’s focused on the identification of negative thinking and created strategies to promote happier thinking. Making a conscious effort to intentionally lift oneself from negative thoughts may be very difficult but could result in a happy and positive outcome.
Martin Seligman is a psychologist who initiated positive psychology. In a study he asked 577 people to write about a time when they felt at their best, happiest and...