The Influence of Greek and Egyptian Cultures in Pompeii and Herculaneum

Greeks settled in the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum soon after it was established and both cities conducted many trades with the Egyptians. It is widely evident that the Greek and Egyptian cultures had a significant influence on the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum in various ways including architecture, religion, art and literature.

The distinct Greek architectural style is evident in many buildings and structures in Pompeii and Herculaneum. The Doric Temple is exclusively a Greek temple in plan and ornamentation and was one of the first temples built in Pompeii; build during the 6th century BC. It occupied the southern part of the Triangular Forum which had the shape of the Greek acropolis. This also supports the idea of early Greek inhabitation as Greek workers or settlers must have built the temple. The Temple of Apollo also resembled the Greek Doric architectural style due to the use of 28 Corinthian columns. The Temple of Apollo also indicates Greek architectural influence due to its Doric architrave of metopes and triglyphs (this refers to the design above the columns). Theatres in both Pompeii and Herculaneum show traits of Greek architecture. The large theatre in Pompeii is set into the slope of a hill just as classic Greek theatres were. The theatre in Herculaneum also resembles classic Greek theatres but it is supported by archways. The baths in Pompeii and Herculaneum and the large palaestra in Pompeii are peristyle structures, having columned porticos around their internal courtyard, a distinct Greek architectural style. The city layout of Herculaneum and the north-western and eastern sectors of Pompeii are laid out with a rigid grid of parallel streets and long rectangular blocks. According to Roger Ling, most Greek colonies in southern Italy and Sicily were laid out with this architectural style of patterned and ordered streets.
Greek religion heavily impacted Pompeii and Herculaneum. Many Greek gods and goddesses such as Apollo, Hermes,...