Defining Management and Organization
Learning Objectives
Upon completion of this chapter, students should be able to do the following: ! Define management, organization, and leadership ! List and discuss criminal justice organizations and the various specialties in criminal justice ! Describe nonprofit and for-profit agencies


n this era of globalization accompanied by complexity, ambiguity, rapid change, and diversity, managing an organization is a difficult task. Yet, good management is critical for the survival of an organization. In fact, good management is so important that Hanson (1986) found that a manager’s ability to manage is 3 times stronger in explaining firm profitability than all other factors combined. Managers are challenged with making decisions, formulating goals, creating a mission, enacting policies and procedures, and uniting individuals in the organization so that completion of all of these and other related tasks can be accomplished. Despite the fact that management pervades everything that an organization does, who “the management” actually is, is not always clearly defined. Management consists of many individuals in an organization at varying levels and ranks, often classified as lower management, middle management, and upper management. Hecht asserts that, “many a person who carries the title of manager is not really a manager” (1980, p. 1). People on the frontline may make decisions, formulate



procedures, and have input into the mission and long-term goals of the organization. Does this make them management? Individuals employed in positions considered to be at the second or third level may also have input or titles that indicate they are managers within the organization. Of course, people are familiar with the terms chief executive officer, director, president, chief operating officer, and so on. These are automatically assumed to be titles that indicate...