Understanding children and young person development

1.1. Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.

Birth to 3 Years: physical development (gross and fine motor)

  * Babies are born with reflexes such as, swallowing, rooting, grasp, startle, walking and falling reflexes.
  * Babies start to lift and turn their heads at around 3 months and smiling at people who smile at them
  * At 3 months watches movements of own hands, plays with own hands; also holds rattle for few seconds if placed in hand
  * By 6 months sits with support
  * By 6 months uses whole hand in palmer grasp, passes toy from one hand to another
  * Exploring toys by feeling, touching and putting them in their mouth
  * By 9 months babies are staring to crawl and sitting up without any support
  * By 9 months uses index and middle fingers with thumb in pincer grip to pick up small items.
  * At 1 year babies may start to stand up by holding on to furniture, are able to feed themselves by using their hands and improving with their motor skills.
  * At around 18 months old they become steady walkers needing little support except for going up and down stairs, wanting little help with trying to feed themselves
  * At 2 years children use a spoon for self-feeding; also start to use preferred hand
  * At 2 years children start to enjoy running and climbing, playing on bikes with involve pedalling,
  * By 2 and half years children may start to potty train, may like to explore sensory materials such as sand, water or play dough, and enjoy playing with different toys and outdoor equipment such as small world toy or slides in the garden.
  * By 3 years old children will need time to play outside as well as inside, they will need safe environment which will encourage them to explore new toys, equipment.

Birth to 3 Years: communication and intellectual/cognitive development
Pre-linguistic stage, birth...