# Using Kindergarten Number Sense to Predict Calculation Fluency in Second Grade

Abstract:
Locuniak states (2008), “We believed that number sense in kindergarten would be a strong predictor of later calculation fluency.” One of the most important tools for solving most math problems is fluency in basic calculation. To solve operations with multidigit numbers, whole or rationale, positive or negative depends on fluent knowledge of number combinations (Locuniak). According to Locuniak (2008), dysfluent calculation is very common among children with math difficulties. Therefore, students with math problems tend to have a deficit in speed and accuracy.
Locuniak also states, “Children with poor fact mastery showed remarkably flat growth on timed fact retrieval tasks. Moreover, on untimed tasks, they consistently relied on their fingers for calculation support”. The understanding of numbers and number relationships is called number sense. It includes the ability to subitize small quantities, to count, and to perform basic arithmetic calculations.
Locuniak (2008) carried out a study of the understanding of numbers and number relationships are called number sense.
The main focus of the study was to predict later calculation fluency by using a varied number of different sense tasks such as counting, number knowledge, non verbal calculation, story problems, count sequence, enumeration, counting principles, and number combinations. The 198 participants were originally recruited in kindergarten from six schools in a school district in Northern Delaware. All of the schools used the same math curriculum. In conclusion, Locuniak states, “Children who had a better grasp of basic addition and subtraction in kindergarten were more likely to achieve better fluency by second grade.”
Reaction:
Based on my journal article, early math skills in kindergarten are a good indicator to predict what students can have math difficulties in the future. An early math intervention for this group of students is a great idea because it can get worse during a child’s...