Summarise and Evaluate Two Approaches in Psychology Which Attempt to Explain Human Behaviour.

There are four main approaches that attempt to explain human behaviour, Behaviourism, Cognitive, Biological and Humanistic. The Biological Approach looks at the relationship between biology, behaviour and mental processes. It is a very scientific approach and believes nature over nurture. The Humanistic Approach was developed in the 1960’s to replace behaviourism and psychoanalysis. It is focused on an individual’s potential and believes in growth and self-actualisation. In this assignment the Cognitive and Behaviourism Approaches will be described and critically evaluated, including strengths and weaknesses.
Cognitive Psychology studies mental processors of how people think, remember, perceive and learn. Information is acquired through our five senses, processed and stored in our memory. It is subsequently used in developing theories and decision making, enabling us to make sense of our environment in a logical and organised way. It is 50% nature and 50% nurture.
Cognitive Development was pioneered by Jean Piaget (1896-1680) as an alternative to the behaviourist approach by trying to explain though processes involved. His theory attempted to describe how children learn and adapt to the world through constant interactions. He suggested that there were two main processors of importance: accommodation, where the individual adjusts to fit with their environment, and assimilation where the outside world is tailored to the individual. Piaget argued that a child’s cognitive development will pass through four stages, described below:
Sensorimotor Stage – (0-2yrs) in which the child interacts with their environment through manipulating objects.
Pre-Operational – (2-7yrs) in which the child’s thinking is dominated by perception. The child becomes more capable of symbolic functioning, but is still influenced by their own environment. Language development occurs in this phase.
Concrete Operational – (7-11yrs) in which the child can only apply logical reasoning to...