Describe and Evaluate Two Approaches to the Treatment of Self Defeating Behavior. the Approaches Should Be Selected from Those Introduced in Module 5.

Describe and evaluate two approaches to the treatment of self defeating behavior.   The approaches should be selected from those introduced in module 5.

"Change is the law of life. And those who look only
to the past or present are certain to miss the future."
~John F. Kennedy

A self-defeating behaviour is any behaviour leading to a lower reward/cost ratio than is available through an alternative behaviour or behaviours. Self-defeating behaviours include choosing to suffer, self-handicapping, failure to achieve potential, fear of success, learned helplessness, and procrastination. Such behaviours are learned in a variety of ways but usually are initially adaptive in preventing greater suffering or in obtaining rewards in the situations in which they are originally learned.
Self-defeating behaviour is the idea that sometimes people knowingly do things that will cause them to fail or bring them trouble. It is defined as “any deliberate or intentional behaviour that has clear, definitely or probably negative effects on the self or on the self’s projects” (Scher & Baumeister 1988). Self-defeating behaviours often occur as consequence of situations that are uncontrollable. For example, if children are punished even when they believe they have behaved well, or if they are rewarded even when they have behaved poorly, they may gain the sense that their behaviour does not matter. Then “learned helplessness” is said to occur because the child does not feel as if he or she is in control of what is happening.

Self-handicapping can occur when people receive positive information that they feel may be unwarranted. In order to protect a possible positive view of themselves, people may engage in some sort of excuse making in advance in order to protect a positive, but precarious, self-view or self-esteem. Self-handicapping involves engaging in a behaviour known to hurt performance, such as getting too little sleep, using a harmful substance, not studying, or not working...