Sultanate of Delhi

The Sultanate of Delhi

During the Delhi Sultanate, several Turkic and Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi, including the Mamluk dynasty (1206-90), the Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451-1526). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire.

The second Muslim invader, Muhammad of Ghor, had political ambitions. He fought the two Battles of Tarain with Prithviraj Chauhan and by winning the second battle,and by killing Prithviraj, established control.He appointed Qutubuddin Aibak,his slave, as his governor,who started independent rule after the death of his master.The Mamluk dynasty is also known as the Slave Dynasty as most of the rulers were former slaves of Muhammad Ghori. Aibek began the construction of Qutub Minar, which was completed by Iltutmish, his successor & son-in-law.Aibek's actual successor was his son Aramshah, but the nobles preferred Iltutmish, the Subedar of Badaun. Iltutmish was followed by Razia Sultana, his daughter, who was a good administrator and the first female ruler from the Muslim world. But she died in a war, after 3 and half years. Balban succeeded her and ruled until 1286 AD. Many infamous and inefficient rulers followed. Faced with revolts by conquered territories and rival families, the Mamluk dynasty came to an end in 1290.

The Khalji or Khilji dynasty, who had established themselves as rulers of Bengal in the time of Muhammad Ghori, took control of the empire in a coup which eliminated the last of the Mamluks. The Khaljis conquered Gujarat and Malwa, and sent the first expeditions south of the Narmada River, as far south as Tamil Nadu. The Delhi Sultanate rule continued to extend into southern India, first by the Delhi Sultans, then by the breakaway Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga, and, after the breakup of the Bahmani state in 1518, by the five independent Deccan Sultanates. The kingdom of Vijayanagar united southern India...