Nerve Cell

What are the different parts of a nerve cell
The axon is a lengthened fiber that stretches out from the cell body to the axon terminals (at the end of the nerve cell) it then transmits the neuron signal through the nerve cell. The larger the axon the faster is passes information through the nerve cell. Some of the axons have a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator. These Myelinated axons pass information much faster than the neurons.

Dendrites are treelike extension at the start of the nerve cell that helps increase the surface area of the cell body and are covered by synapses. These are tiny extrusions that receive information and signals from other neurons and then convey stimulation to the stoma.

Axon terminal is the structure of a neuron (a single cell of the central or peripheral nervous system) at the end of its axon that forms a synapse with another neuron. Generally, the axon terminal is the point at which a neuron passes information to the neurons with which it is connected.

Myelin Sheath is a consist of fat containing several cells that help insulate the axon from electrical activity. The insulation helps to increase the rate of transmissions of signals each myelin has a small gap in between each of the myelin. Since the signals are sent through the axon the electrical signals then jump the gaps between each myelin. Multiple sclerosis is caused destruction or loss of myelin inside of the central nervous system.

Node of Raniver is the gap in between the myelin sheath (approximately 1 micrometer apart). At Node of Raniver the axonal membrane is uninsulated then is able to generate electrical activity. The electrical impulse then jumps from one myelin to the next at a rate as fast as 120 meters/second.

Soma is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus the soma is usually called the cell body. The word soma comes from the Greek meaning “(body). The cell body is also contains many other unique structures...