Unit 1 – Sub 1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.
By Emma Gazard

0 to 12 months:
Physical: In the first 12 months of life babies go through many physical changes, for example:
  * Swallowing and sucking reflexes: this allows the infant to feed from either the mother or a bottle.
  * Rooting reflexes: This allows the infant to move its head and root for the nipple or bottle teat, as an infant’s eye sight is undeveloped.
  * Grasping reflexes: An infant will automatically grasp an object or hand that has been placed on it palm.
  * Startle reflex: If an infant hears a sudden or loud noise and also bright lights, the infant will automatically move their arms away from their body and clench their fists.
  * Walking and Standing reflex: when infants are held up right with their feet on a hard flat surface they will automatically move their feet in a stepping motion.
As they move past the first few months their physical activity becomes more regular and coordinated for example:
  * Their bodies become less curled up as their muscles stretch from having more room outside the womb.
  * They will begin to lift and support their own head weight, as their eye sight strengthens.
  * Infants will also begin to roll over to their tummies, which allows them to strengthen their core muscles. This also allows them to strengthen their neck and their arms and legs.
  * As they start to reach closer to the 12 month mark they begin to explore with their hands, using their fingers to feed themselves.
  * They also crawling and possibly pulling them self’s up on to furniture and begin to start cruising.
Language and communication:  
Once born an infant will communicate with its primary care giver by crying when hungry, tired or in distress. As time moves on they will become more aware of their own voice, and begin to coo and gurgle.
Over the coming months an infant will begin to smile when confronted with...