* The foundation of Islamic civilization is the Shari’a, the law of Islam. All Muslims believe Sharia is God’s Law , but differ as to what exactly it entails
  * After Muhammad dies, the umma tried to conduct itself according to his example. This became harder and harder to do, however, as those who knew Muhammad best passed away and many Arabs found themselves living in far off parts of the conquered territories.
  * Islam slowly developed laws to shape social and religious life. The full sense of Islamic Civilization, however, goes well beyond the five pillars. When it comes to law, some Muslim thinkers felt that the reasoned consideration of a mature and intelligent man-women were only heard in religious matters-provided the best way to resolve an issue not covered by the Quran. Others argued that the best guide was the sunna, or tradition, of the Prophet and that the best way to understand the sunna was to collect and study   many reports in circulation purporting to describe the precise words or deeds of Muhammad.
  * These reports were called hadith , and it gradually became customary to precede each hadith with a statement indicating whom the speaker had hear it from, and so on, back to the Prophet personally.
  * The Sharia’h contains categories and subjects of Islamic law called the branches of fiqh, literally meaning understanding. They include Islamic worship, Family relations, Inheritance, Commerce, Property Law, Civil law, Criminal Law, Administration, Taxation, Constitution, International Relations, War and Ethics, and other categories (that I am too lazy to type up).
  * Names for a Muslim Jurist include Fuqaha, the class of scholars who dealt in theoretical Islamic Law and or the fiqh.
  * The Shari’ah is categorized into the following topics: 1 Purification, 2 Prayer, 3 The Funeral Prayer, 4 The Poor Tax, 5 Fasting, 6 The Pilgrimage, 7 Trade, 8 Inheritance, 9 Marriage, 10 Divorce, and 11 Justice. In some areas, there are substantial...