Infectious Disease

Infectious Disease
      Tesira Slaughter
      Nakki A. Price

      HIV is the human immunodeficiency virus. It is a virus that can lead to acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS. There are two types of HIV, HIV-1 and HIV-2. The term HIV usually primarily refers to HIV-1. Both of these HIV types can damage a person’s body by destroying certain blood cells, called CD4 and T cells, which are the main cells that help fight diseases.
      HIV can be spread by not using a condom when having sex with a person who has HIV. However, unprotected anal sex is more risky than unprotected vaginal sex. Men who have sex with other men, unprotected receptive anal sex is risky than unprotected insertive anal sex. Having multiple sex partners or the sight of other sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) can improve the risk of infection during sex. Having unprotected oral sex can also be a risk for HIV transmission, but much lower than anal or vaginal. Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare drugs for injection. Also, being born to a mother who was infected by HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breast-feeding. There are less common factors of transmission, receiving blood transfusions, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV.
      HIV originated from a chimpanzee in West Africa. Chimpanzees are known as the source of HIV infections in humans. Scientists believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus known as simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV, most likely was transmitted to humans and turned into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their blood. The virus spread through out Africa and later into the different parts of the world.
      There is no vaccine available for HIV; the only way to protect you from getting this disease is to avoid behaviors that place a person at risk for infection....