Two Pathogens That Cause Infectious Diseases


Author:   Avril   Mclean
Date:       April 14, 2013

Two Pathogens That Cause Infectious Diseases

    Pathogens viral or bacterial, infects microorganisms and occurs between hosts of

the same or opposite species, but have different pathways to invade humans,

animals, and plants.   Bacteria and viruses are everywhere, but only a few cause

disease.   These disease causing agent can be considered a conflict between the

pathogen and the host.   The goal of this paper is to show the origin and effect of

these two pathogens, and ways the host can fight invasion.

      Viruses are not able to grow or reproduce on their own, but must take over a

host’s cell that provides these functions;   Therefore, a virus is not considered

“living.”   However, the structure of a virus is extremely simple and sufficient for an

independent life.   Viruses can be made up of either deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or

ribonucleic acid (RNA).   Unlike living cells, viruses will have either DNA or RNA, but

not both.   All viruses reproduce by infecting living cells, resulting in a disease when

the infection causes harm to the host.   A virus’s sole purpose is to reproduce, but it

needs a host to do so.   Once a suitable host cell has been located, the virus attaches

to the surface of the cell or is ingested into the cell by a process called

“phagocytosis.”   It then releases its genetic material into the cell, and essentially

shuts down normal cell processes.   The cell stops producing the proteins that it

usually makes and uses the new blueprint provided by the virus to begin making

viral proteins.   The virus uses the cell’s energy and materials to produce the nucleic

acid to make numerous copies of the original virus.

    Once these clones are assembled, the virus will cause the hosts cell to rupture,

releasing the viruses to infect neighboring cells.   Viruses are known to affect any

kind of hosts that has...