# Greek Architecture

Proportions in Greek and Renaissance Art
Golden Rectangles
A Golden Rectangle is a rectangle in which the longer side is 1.618 times the shorter side, and the
shorter side is 0.618 times the longer side. Many shapes in nature fill a golden rectangle. A spruce
tree has golden proportions in height and width. The dragonfly s wingspan length to his body length
is a golden proportion.

Spruce tree

Golden Proportions
A proportion is the relation of one part to another. In a golden proportion, one length is 0.618 times
the other length. The exact formula is:
2
1 5
.
It can also be found from the Fibonacci numbers (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377,
610,...). Dividing Fibonacci numbers (number gets closer and closer to the golden proportion):
1 1 = 1
1 2 = 0.5
2 3 = 0.667
3 5 = 0.6
5 8 = 0.625
8 13 = 0.615
13 21 = 0.619
21 34 = 0.618

Golden Proportions In Greek and Renaissance Art
Since the Ancient Greek times, artists have regarded the golden proportion as one of ideal beauty. It
can be found throughout in paintings (like the Mona Lisa
http://avline.abacusline.co.uk/pictures/jpeg/pics/mona.jpg, sculptures, and architecture (like the
Parthenon ). An easy way to quickly measure golden ratios is to use the Fibonacci numbers in
some measuring unit like centimeters or inches.

The following is quoted and paraphrased from
http://www.goldenmuseum.com/0305GreekArt_engl.html
As the main requirements of beauty Aristotle puts forward an order, proportionality and limitation in
the sizes.

Consequences in Greek Architecture building constructed on the basis of the golden section:
• The antique Parthenon
• "Canon" by Policlet, and Afrodita by Praksitle
• The perfect Greek theatre in Epidavre and
the most ancient theatre of Dionis in
The theatre in Epidavre is constructed by Poliklet to the 40th Olympiad. It was counted on 15
thousand persons. Theatron (the place for the spectators)...