Discovering the Human Body

Europhiles lived in Calcedonia sometime shortly after 334 B.C. He was the first to publically dissect a human corpse.   His studies gave us accurate descriptions of the nervous system, liver, and small intestine. He also discovered that the brain controlled all mental functions, pointed out motor and sensory neurons, showed how all nerves link to the central nervous system, and pointed out the large veins connecting the liver and small intestine.
Erasistratus lived in the same time period as Europhiles. He discovered the bile duct, analyzed blood flow through the liver, and highlighted parallel flow of hepatic veins and biliar capillaries. He also believed air ran through arteries.
Constantine lived in the ninth century. He knew Arabian and studied Alexandria’s medical texts.   He contributed by translating all of the texts he was able to find into Latin and brought scientific knowledge into European culture.
Galen was born in 130 A.D.   He was dedicated in trying to cure fallen gladiators. Using prior knowledge from the School of Alessandria along with anatomical knowledge of animals, he wrote and left many notes to his relatives.   For example, he believed the heart had two cavities, the brain sent signals through nerves, and the intestine was long enough that people did not have to eat continuously.   His notes were held in very high regard.
Mondino de’Liuzzi lived around the time of 1350.   He wrote Anatomia corporis humani which was basically a manual on dissecting people. This textbook was based on direct, practical experience and became so influential that it was used by all medical students.
Andrea Vesalio was born in 1514.   His textbook, De humani corporis fabrica, played a role in revolutionizing the anatomical science and surgery of his time.   Accompanied by an artist, the textbook’s knowledge and sketches were so valid they could even be used today.   He also opened an Institue of anatomy in Loviano where he dissected dead criminals, and became an...