Changing Emphasis on Health Issues


The purpose of this essay is to explain two social and two medical factors and the influence that they have had on changing emphasis on health issues.   The topics explained with regard to social factors are immunisation with a view of parents and baby vaccination, and health screening for cervical cancer.   The medical factors used for the purpose of this essay are, young people and unemployment, and Environmental issues relating to the health of an individual.

Edward Jenner (1749–1823) is best known as the man who developed a sage means of preventing smallpox – by vaccination.   Smallpox was the greatest killer at the beginning of the 19th century.   Some 30% of children in England died of smallpox before reaching the age of three.   (Lee, 2001, pg 86)   Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch developed new processes of inoculation during 19th century.   (Lee, 2001, pg86)   Louis Pasteur went on to develop a vaccine against rabies in 1885.   Emil Von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato discovered the antitoxins of diphtheria and tetanus in 1890.   By the end of 1920’s vaccines for diphtheria and tetanus were available.   After the second world war more new   vaccines such as polio and measles became more widely available.   (   In 1853, the government made vaccination compulsory, some 40,000 people died from smallpox in 1870, but by 1900 the disease had almost disappeared.   This was a major step forward in controlling disease.   It was also the first example of the government accepting responsibility for an area of public health.   (Lee, 2001, pg 88)   Pasteur, Koch, Roux, Klebs and others played at vital role in all the changes made to immunization during the late 19th century.   Preventative health services now offer immunization which aim is to prevent ill-health,   therefore, immunisation is offered by way of protecting people from some diseases by introducing a mild form of the disease into their body so that the body can...