Behaviorism was studied to discover how it has affected the understanding of learning. The research begins with a brief history of its development, and the main components of behaviorism. This paper will also include description of several behaviorists’ experiments and explains how behaviorism develops new behaviors.
The design of instruction for learners normally involves an analysis of learning needs and goals and subsequent development of a delivery system or approach for meeting such needs. It includes such activities as developing learning materials, designing instructional activities, determining techniques for involving learners, facilitating learning activities, and carrying out some evaluation efforts. (Hiemstra, Brockett,). Instructional design is based on the theoretical foundation such as cognitvism, constructivism, and behaviorism. (Isman, A. 2011p.137)What affect does behaviorism play in designing instruction?   An instructional designer must first understand what is behaviorism and how does it affect the understanding of learning.
Development of Behaviorism. During the early 19th century, theories in behaviorism were originated to have psychology as branch of natural science. John Watson, the father of behaviorism, claimed that psychology was not concerned with the mind or with human consciousness. Instead, psychology would be concerned only with behavior. Behaviorism is the study of observable behaviors in response to stimuli. (Wingart, Oliveira, Sommerfelt, Pollock, and, Hilliard (n.d) Watson’s work was based on the experiments of Ivan Pavlov, who had studied animals’ responses to conditioning. In Pavlov’s best-known experiment, he ranged a bell as he fed some dogs several meals. Each time the dogs heard the bell, they knew that a meal was coming, and they would begin to slobber. Pavlov then ranged the bell without bringing food, but the dogs still slobbered. They had been “conditioned” to slobber at the sound of a bell....