Anthropology Break Down


Anthropology Midterm

      Over many years scientists have done much research to see how we have come to be as a species.   Through this research scientists have proven that there has been much evolution within our genus. Meaning that we as a species didn’t just appear; we evolved from other species or genera. In chapter seven, of Anthropology the Human Challenge, scientists categorized human evolution into two concepts: by biological evolution and cultural evolution.

Humans did not always have the appearance they do today. Physically we as a species have changed. Our bodies have evolved so we can survive in the world. One major change noted by scientists was that our brain size had increased over the years. In 1959 Louis and Mary Leakey had went searching for the fossils in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. They unearthed skeletal remains of what is presently known as Homo habilis. Years later their son discovered a fossil named KNMR 1470. The distinguishing factor of these remains was that it had a cranial capacity of 752 cubic centimeters. This measurement was larger than most apes of the time. The average modern human cranium has a capacity of between 1,000 and 2,000 cubic centimeters (Haviland, 163). This information led scientist to propose that “Early Homo likely possessed the marked increase in ability to learn and to process information (Haviland, 153).” Increased brain size really did allow for learning new concepts such as speech. Modern day humans cannot dig up a fossil that has an intact brain fully preserved. Consequently we may never be able to say for sure that speech was a definite part of life in the past. The abilities of Homo to hunt in groups and plan for seasonal change show communication skills that Homos were improving their linguistic intelligence in order to survive. Basic stone tools have been found along with fossils. After much research scientists concluded that many of those tools were meant for right handed Homos;...