Air Pollution

Our activities affect the environment and the environment affects our health, As the number of humans on earth increases, our agricultural and industrial activities have a greater impact on the environment, particularly on the atmosphere, As our most precious resource, the atmosphere has been polluted, so it is imperative to take measures to control air pollution, It becomes necessary to know what the sources have been and how they operate. In this chapter, we first introduce five main air pollutants: Carbon monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbon, particulate, oxides of sulfur (SOx), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). We then present the industrial emission inventory. Finally, we analyze the character of air emissions from five main industrial sectors that are combustion sources: The petroleum industry, chemical industry, metallurgical industry, construction material industry and paper and pulp manufacturing. The emission factors are based on the present processes. With the innovation of processes and the implementation of clean production, the factors will decrease gradually.
  1. Introduce:
Before I show you the effects from the industries to the environment, we need to understand the natural conditions and constituents of the atmosphere. The atmosphere or air normally composed of about 79 percent nitrogen, 20 percent oxygen and 1 percent mixture of carbon dioxide, water vapor and small quantities of several gases. Based primarily on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into four layers: Troposphere, Stratosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere.
Pollution sometime is produced by human’s activities such as   traffic jam, waste storage dumps, household waste, burning of hazardous industrial waste and medical waste emit dust and contaminants such as SO2, NO 2, CO, HCL, VOC etc. Therefore, there are several natural sources that degrade the quality of the air, such as gases and particle from volcanoes, dust from natural sources or odors from decomposition of dead plants and...