Theory Then Research

In the chapter “Strategies for Developing a Scientific Body of Knowledge”, the “Theory-then-Research” strategy is approached. How does this relate to the Criminal Justice System in relation to crime deterrence rates?

      The theory-then-research strategy holds that meaningful practical experimentation depends upon first formulating a theory, which will make predictions that you can then test by empirical investigation. This would be for the further refinement, if not immediate endorsement or complete abandonment of the original theory. Bachman and Schutt (2008) noted that, the process of conducting research, moving from theory to data and back again is called the research cycle. The cycle first starts with a theory, which is our idea and what we think. It then moves on to deductive reasoning which is to show that the theory stated could be falsified. The data phase comes next which shows what is actually observed. From there, inductive reasoning is reached by collecting specific sets of facts from the data which then leads to a general conclusion (p 34-36).
      According to Reynolds (2007) “The major focus of this strategy is the development of an explicit theory through a continuous interaction between theory, construction, and empirical research” (p147).   He also states that the most fundamental problem with implementing theory-then-research strategy is in inventing the initial theory itself (p.52). One way a researcher may get a new idea, is through forming a relation between old and new concepts putting together an entirely new idea. Deterrence theory is based on the concept that, if the consequence of committing a crime outweighs the benefit of the crime itself, the individual will be deterred from committing the crime. This is created in the idea that all individuals are aware of the difference between right and wrong and the consequences associated with wrong or criminal behaviors.
      Deterrence theory looks at the behavioral psychology through...