The Military, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Personality

The Military, Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, and Personality

Jaye Crouse
Northcentral University

Dr. Claire Clifford
Jul 20, 2014

The field of personality psychology has developed out of the necessity to know why people act, feel, and think like they do, to analyze their inward and outward motivations, and to discover where behaviors originate.   It is the age-old debate of nature versus nurture that is found in many psychological theories and personality is no exception.   Some researchers are convinced that the structure of personality is uniform and personality traits are universal, fundamentally heritable, and comprised of broadly defined dimensions where cultural, social, and gender influences are irrelevant and personality traits are fairly stable (Cattell, Eber, & Tatsuoka, 1970; McCrae & Costa, 1997: Terracciano & McCrae, 2006).   Other psychologists such as humanistic and positive psychologists believe quite the opposite and contend that humans are essentially good with free will to make choices, change outcomes, and seek out opportunities to enhance their quality of life with the goal of self-actualizing, making personality a more fluid and less deterministic perspective with a focus on values, resiliency, and subjective well-being   (Cloninger, 2013).   Other researchers such as Freud, Adler, Horney, and Jung believe culture, society, and environment are profoundly important influences on personality (working in tandem with biological drives and urges) especially regarding early relationships with parents, gender roles, and structure of birth-order and its expectations (Cloninger, 2013).   Still others like Dollard and Miller, Skinner, Bandura, and Staats embrace a behavioral approach to personality development based on observational learning, behavior repertoires, operant conditioning, behavior modification, and learning by imitation (Clonigner, 2013).   In addition, Dollard and Miller (1950) were critical...