The Effects of Exercise on Cardiovascular Physiology

The effect of Aerobic Exercise on the vital signs: Examining Key CardiovasCular and respiratory physiological parameters

On May 3rd 2012 Stig Ă…vall Severinsen made the Guinness World Record for underwater static apnoea, lasting exactly 20 minutes without breathing (Guinness World Records, 2012). Not everyone . can do this, and in fact the average person can only hold their breath for minutes. Molecular oxygen is essential for the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP): the energy currency of cellular processes. Deprivation of oxygen causes brain cells to die, which is quickly followed by death. Our bodies have very few ways of storing the essential oxygen and ATP so breathing (pulmonary ventilation) is a fundamental physiological process. The body has evolved several routes to generate the necessary energy in oxygen-depleted cells; this is known as anaerobic respiration. However, anaerobic respiration involves rapid glycolysis and provides only a short-term supply of energy.. Eventually, oxygen must be provided for any sustained level of activity. (Hale, 2003). Aerobic exercise uses glucose as the energy source and oxygen as the final electron acceptor to produce ATP, a process called cellular respiration. Hydrolysis of ATP provides energy to all mechanical (e.g. muscle contraction), chemical (e.g. glucogenesis) and transport work (e.g. active transport of sodium and potassium in the kidneys) (Katch, McArdle & Katch, 2011).
Heat is a by-product of energy generation so its production is increased under conditions that raise energy requirements, such as exercise. Heat production during activity must equal the rate of heat lost to maintain core body temperature within a narrow range (36oC-38oC) (Scanlon & Sanders, 2011). Excess heat is detected by the hypothalamus and primarily expelled by evaporation of water through sweating and respiration. The downside being dehydration can result from hypovolaemia if lost fluids are not replenished....