Sirs and Sepsis

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Sepsis
Densie Cox
Systemic Inflammatory Responses Syndrome is a serious condition where there is inflammation through out the whole body. It may be caused by a severe bacterial infection, sepsis, trauma or pancreatitis. Sepsis is an infection of the bloodstream and is the body's response to an infection. The infection tends to spread quickly and is difficult to recognize. When an infection isn't contained at its' source, the infection leaks into the bloodstream and causes sepsis. This is associated with inflammation and maldistribution of blood flow. When bacteria enters the bloodstream, it releases a toxic substance. The body's immune response is activated and releases proinflammatory mediators into the body's system. These mediators consist of prostaglandins and cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor(TNF) and interleukines. From the bloodstream WBC's respond with cytokines and cause vasodilation, increased capillary permeability and increased coagulation. In a septic person, too much of the cytokines are stimulated causing an exagerrated response. ● Cytokine induced systemic vasodilation and hypovolaemia are responsible for renal hyperfusion. Muscular System ● Tissue injury occurs during inflammation. ● Impaired fibrinolysis is due to decrease in clot breakdown. ● Tissue injury is related to fibrin clots which leads to microthrombi. ● Microthrombi causes hypoperfusion of tissues leading to tissue necrosis. ● Tissue necrosis leads to muscular degeneration.

Treatment for patients with Sepsis
Initial medical care should be focused on the cause of SIRS and Sepsis. A broad spectrum antiobiotic should be started immediately to prevent further increase in infection. Failure to insigate appropriate antibiotic therapy increases mortality. Blood cultures should be obtained to determine the bacterial cause. Treatment pertaining to systems addressed should include oxygen via nasal...