Psychology Revision

Counseling Theories

Humanistic –

Cognitive Counseling –

Psychoanalysis –

Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy -

Self Concept and Self-Esteem

The Ideal Self – can lead to two different views between the self and experience of reality and the self and the ideal self.

The SHAVELSON MODEL - Self Concept is a person’s self-perceptions, which are formed through experience with, and interpretations of, his or her environment.
These perceptions are influenced, especially, by the evaluations of significant others reinforcements, and the way people explain their own behaviours to themselves (attributions).
Shavelson presents self-concept as a hypothetical construct that is potentially useful in explaining and predicting how that person acts or will act.

  1. Self Concept is organised or structured in that people categories the vast amount of information they have about themselves and relate these categories to one another.
  2. It is multifaceted.
  3. It is hierarchical.
  4. The apex of the hierarchy is stable although becomes increasingly less stable as one descends the hierarchy. Changes in general self-concept will require many changes in many situation specific instances.
  5. Self Concept becomes increasingly multifaceted as a person moves from infancy to adulthood.
  6. 6. Self Concept has both a descriptive and an evaluative aspect e.g. I am happy or I do well in Khody’s psychology lectures.

Marsh (1984) Big Fish Little Pond Effect – Abilities are compare with that of their peers and use this to establish there own self concept.

Reflective Glory of being with or around people of success (Lazarus & Folkman 1984).

Sports Psychology

  * Imagery

  * It’s a strategy that involves in attempting to reduce discomfort by imagining a mental scene, which is unconnected to and incompatible with the pain (Coolican, 1996; Simons, 2000; Morris et al, 2005).
  * Imagery appears to be more...