Political Ideaolgies

Explain the development and fundamental principles of the major ideologies, and compare and contrast the schools of thought within one of them.

The major ideologies have different views on society and government and how they should work.   Today we will be looking at these major ideologies and looking at the similarities and differences between them.

Liberalism, also known as Classical Liberalism.   Began in the 1600’s, a lot different to American Liberalism, it was developed when philosopher John Locke rethought the relationship between the individual and society, as well as forming a framework for the rights and responsibilities of the individual.   These ideas formed the foundation for many political systems which are still operating today.

The liberalist believes in individualism.   Individual takes priority over society, focus on the needs of the individual rather than those of any group or ‘collective’.   having there own interests or possessing personal and unique identities (p18 A, Heywood).   Liberalist also believe in freedom, an individual has the right to make their own choices, but this freedom is not absolute.   Some behaviours such as murder is prohibited.   A particular important freedom to come out of liberalism is religion, this is because many governments at the time were closely tied to a particular religious creed.   Equality is the liberalists belief that no individual is morally of politically superior to another, should be entitled to the same rights and respect.   Liberals believe in universalism, that individuals everywhere possess common or universal features, they are all of equal moral worth.   Liberalists reject hierarchies (p21 A, Heywood).   Rationalism is a belief in an individual being capable of thinking logically and rationally, it is seen logic and reason help us to solve problems.   Liberalist see progression, that tradition should only be kept if it holds value.   New ideas are seen as helpful as they lead to progress in the...