Sir Issac Newton born Januray 4, 1643, was a physicist, mathemetician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, and theologian that was considered the single most important contributor to the development of modern science. In 1687 he publushed a book called Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, more commonly known as Principia. In this book newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. The first states that every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it. Which is one that is easily observed in everyday actions. The second law however is more easily observed mathmatically as it states the relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Where the directon of both vectors are alike. This is similar to Aristotle’s F=mv , but newton’s law states that an object with a certain velocity will maintain that velocity unless a force acts upon it and causes a change in velocity , or an acceleration/deceleraion. The third law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. This is the most common law because it applies to almost every aspect of daily life. With these laws Newton showed that the motion of objects on earth are controlled by the same set of laws by showing the simularities in Kepler’s laws of pletary motion and his theory of gravitation. This theory states that every massive particle in the universe attracts every other massive particle with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. In other words, every point mass attracts every single other point mass by a force pointing along the line intersecting both points. The force is directly proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the point masses. Newton was also known for...