Ionization and Other Chemistry Vocab

Electron Affinity
Electron affinity is the amount of energy required to detach an electron from a singly charged negative ion.   A positive electron affinity indicates that energy is released on going from atom to anion, a negatively charged ion. Electron affinity tends to move slightly more positive when moving down a group except for the elements in the second period. Electron affinities become more negative when they are moving across the table.

Ionization Energy
Ionization energy is the amount of energy used to move an isolated electron from an atom or ion. Ionization energy uses ionization, the process of turning an atom or molecule into an ion by adding or subtracting electrons from the atom or molecule. Ionization energy tends to become more negative when moving down a group but becomes more positive when moving across periods on the periodic table.  

Atomic Radii
Atomic Radii is considered to be the size of an atom. The atomic radii are measured from the nucleus to its valence electrons, electrons contained in the atoms outermost shell. When atomic radii moves across the periodic table it tends to become more negative but when atomic radii moves down a group on the periodic table, it tends to become more positive.  

Electronegativity refers to the ability of an atom to attract the electrons of another atom to it when those two atoms are associated through a bond. It is based on ionization energy and electron affinity. Electronegativity increases when it is moving across the periodic table but decreases when it is moving down a group.

Ionic Radii
Ionic radii are the measure of an ion in a crystal lattice. The ionic radii uses letter values that will make it easier for us to find the true sizes of the anions, a negatively charged ion, and the cations, a positively charged ion. The ionic radii increases when moving left to right across the periodic table and increases when moving down a group.

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