Hsc 024-1

Kim Hutchins
City and Guilds unit number 4222-205
Unit HSC 024

Define the following seven types of abuse and for each include their associated signs and symptoms: ‘physical, sexual, emotional/psychological, financial, institutional, self-neglect and neglect by others.’
1.1 and 1.2

  1) Physical Abuse is the non-accidental infliction of physical force that results in bodily injury, pain or impairment. Anyone can be physically abused, the young and the old. There are signs or indicators to show physical abuse and there are ways in which victims and abusers act or interact with each other. Physical abuse includes:
  * Hitting, slapping and kicking.
  * Misuse of medication.
  * Inappropriate sanctions including deprivation of food, clothing, warmth and health care needs.
  * Smashing of furniture or personal belongings.
  * Pushing or rough handling.
  * Restraining without justifiable reason.
  * Assault and battery.
  * Force feeding.
  * Threatened or hurt with a weapon.

Signs of physical abuse are often evident but can also be hidden by the abuser or the victim. Any unexplained injuries should always be fully investigated. Evidence to look out for includes but are not limited to:
  * Burns, especially on soles, palms or back; from immersion in hot water, friction burns, and rope or electric appliance burns.
  * Cowering and flinching.
  * Marks on body, including slap marks, finger marks, also clusters of injuries forming regular patterns or reflecting the shape of an article.
  * Injuries inconsistent with the lifestyle/behaviour of the adult/young person at risk.
  * Multiple fractures.
  * Injuries at different stages of healing.
  * Lacerations or abrasions to mouth, lips, gums, eyes, external genitalia. Malnutrition, ulcers, bed sores and being left in wet clothing
  * Malnutrition, ulcers, bed sores and being left in wet clothing.
Symptoms can include the abused being very passive, in pain, feeling low or even...