Emergence of the Maratha Power

Q: Describe the attack on Shaista Khan:
After his accession to the throne and the dramatic death of Afzal Khan, Aurangzeb sent Shaista Khan as viceroy of the Deccan with a large army to defeat Shivaji. In January 1660 Shaista Khan arrived at Aurangabad and quickly advanced, seizing Pune, the center of Shivaji's realm. He also captured the fort of Chakan and Kalyan and north Konkan after heavy fighting with the Maratha.The Maratha were banned from entering the city of Pune and Mughal distance from the locals turned out to be an error. On the evening of April 5, 1663, a wedding party had obtained special permission for holding a procession. Shivaji and many of his nearly 400 men disguised as the bridegroom's procession members entered Pune. Others entered in small parties dressed as laborers and soldiers of Maratha generals serving under Shaista Khan. After midnight, they raided the Nawab's compound and then entered the palace in an attempt to assassinate Shaista Khan.
Shaista Khan was clearly unaware and unprepared. The Marathas broke into the courtyard of the palace and slaughtered the palace guards. Shaista Khan lost three fingers in a skirmish with Shivaji, while his son was killed in an encounter with the Marathas in the palace courtyard. Forty attendants and six women were also killed. Taking advantage of the confusion and darkness, the Marathas escaped the palace and Pune, despite the widespread camping of Mughal forces. Shocked by the sudden and bold attack in Pune, Aurangzeb angrily transferred Shaista Khan to Bengal, even refusing to give him an interview at the time of transfer as was the custom.
Q: Describe the Battle of Surat :
According to 'History of The Marattas' a book written in 1826 by James Grant Duff a Capt.in British India Regiment, 'Surat was attacked by Shivaji on 5 Jan 1664. This was a wealthy port city in Mughal empire for the sea trade of the era. This city was well populated mostly Hindus and very...