The New Deal
Cole Miller
U.S. History - The Modern Period
April 27, 2011
Dr. James Seelye

The New Deal
The New Deal was a succession of economic programs put into action by the United States between 1933 through 1936.   They were passed by the United States Congress during the first term of Franklin Delano Roosevelt’s presidency, which was from 1933 to 1937.   The programs were enacted as responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what many historians refer to as the "3 R’s" (relief, recovery, and reform).   In layman’s terms this means, relief for the unemployed and poor, recovering the economy back to the normal levels before the depression, and reform of the financial system to prevent a depression from happening again.   The New Deal produced a major political realignment during the modern period, making the Democratic Party the majority (as well as the party which held the White House for seven out of nine Presidential terms from 1933 to 1969), with its foundation of liberal ideas, empowered labor unions, and ethnic minorities.   The Republicans were split, they either opposed the entire New Deal as being an enemy of business and growth, or accepting some of it and working toward making it more efficient.   The new alignments were aptly named the New Deal Coalition (which dominated most of the American elections into the 1960’s), while the opposition was the Conservative Coalition (whom took control of Congress from 1938 to 1964).
The early years of the New Deal are distinguished in history by a "First” New Deal in 1933 and then a "Second” New Deal 1934–36.   The "First” New Deal dealt mainly with groups; everything from banking, the railroads to industry and farming, all of which were demanding help for economic recovery.   A "Second” New Deal" introduced 1934-36 included the Wagner Act (it was also known as and became the National Labor Relations Act) to promote labor unions, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) relief program, the Social Security...