History of Political Thought

1-Philosophy has pretended to be the reason for   politics and this the practice of   the reason. A desired indissoluble unity between theory and practice, reason and action, logos and praxis, or that one is not possible without the other.
Philosophy has given dignity to politics as an end has been assigned as a project of universal intelligence and will. Any practice out of reason, will, law and collective order lacks of historical legitimacy and human dignity.
However, since Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, the ultimate reality is the political reality. In this sence, Aristotle was brutally blunt: “man is a political animal” who doesn’t need politics, in the social, or in the intersubjective relationships, or the community life, “ is a god or a beast”
A "political animal" means an animal whose nature is to live in a polis or city, not isolated or in small groups. "Civilization" -from Latin civitas, a city- is the natural state for the human animal.
Aristotle at the beginning of the Policy says: "Each State as we know it is a partnership, the hope of a good and its principle, as it is any association, because all men’s actions are aimed at what they judge which is a good…
I read that Aristotle discusses the kind of polity that he calls "polity". He generally defines this as the form of government in which all the citizens take turns to rule, but now he defines it in terms of the idea just introduced, that rule is a complex of activities that can be allocated to different social categories. He stated that Politics is the form of government in which different organs of government are controlled by different sections of the population, in such a way that both rich and poor have a share of power. Perhaps it is because power is shared by all categories that it can be said that all take turns to rule.
Like Plato, Aristotle supposed that the need for a division of labor is the initial occasion of the formation of a society, whose structure will be modelled upon that...