Genitourinary System

is a term that refers to a group of kidney disorders characterized by inflammatory injury in the glomerulus, most of which are caused by an immunological reaction.
2. The disorder results in proliferative and inflammatory changes within the glomerular structure.
3. Destruction, inflammation, and sclerosis of the glomeruli of the kidneys occur.
4. Inflammation of the glomeruli results from an antigen-antibody reaction produced by an infection elsewhere in the body.
5. Loss of kidney function develops.
B. Causes
1. Immunological diseases
2. Autoimmune diseases
3. Antecedent group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the pharynx or skin
4. History of pharyngitis or tonsillitis 2 to 3 weeks before Symptoms
Acute: Occurs 2 to 3 weeks after a streptococcal infection
Chronic: Can occur after the acute phase or slowly over time
  1. Renal Failure
2. Hypertensive encephalopathy
3. Pulmonary edema
4. Heart failure
1. Periorbital and facial edema that is more prominent in the morning
2. Anorexia
3. Decreased urinary output
4. Cloudy, smoky, brown-colored urine (hematuria)
5. Pallor, irritability, lethargy
6. In the older child, headaches, abdominal or flank pain, dysuria
7. Hypertension
8. Proteinuria that produces a persistent and excessive foam in the urine
9. Azotemia
10. Increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels
11. Increased antistreptolysin O titer (used to diagnose disorders caused by streptococcal infections)
1. Monitor vital signs, weight, intake and output, and the characteristics of urine.
2. Limit activity; provide safety measures.
3. Provide high-quality nutrient foods.
a. Restrictions depend on the stage and severity of the disease, especially the extent of the edema.
b. In uncomplicated cases, a regular diet is permitted but sodium is restricted to a “no added salt to foods” diet.
c. Moderate sodium restriction is prescribed...