Football Hooligansim Literature Review

Literature Review

Football hooliganism has no set legal definition however the general supposition by many associates the term to actions of violence and disorder between rival supporters which occurs at an assortment of locations at diverse times. According to the majority of Criminologists the participants involve themselves in ritualised displays with patterned behaviour containing elements of message, moral approval and disapproval, encompassed in symbolic displays which are almost orderly to an almost absurd extent. (Perryman, 2005) A key question to analyse is whether researchers accomplished their measured definitions through their own ‘justifiable’ research or through the arguably ‘untrustworthy’ mass media contents.

Within any area of research it is highly significant that the historical literature of a topic is offered. Since the early 1980s, the leading contributors to the UK debate on football hooliganism from a sociological perspective has been the ‘Leicester School.’ One particular notion they have expressed interest upon is the roots of modern football hooliganism.   Modern football hooliganism dates from the early 1960’s, during which Britain entered a ‘decivilizing spurt’, as socio-economic weaknesses and inequalities hardened. Rival gangs of young supporters attacked each other more deliberately, consistently and instrumentally. ‘Respectable’ fans started to abandon the game to those ‘rough’ lower working classes. (Giulianotti, 1999) Additionally Elias’s (1978) viewpoint is rooted in his own notion of social ‘figurations’. People are linked into networks of social interdependency; power relations are fluid in a permanent state of flux. (Elias, 1978) He believes a ‘civilizing process’ has been underway in Western societies, influenced by economic growth, division of labour, taxation, violence and social democratization. The Leicester researchers claim it is within the housing estates filled with the unincorporated, lower working classes,...