Explain the Main Principles of the Classical Forms of Utilitarianism

“Explain the main principles of the classical forms of Utilitarianism” (25 marks)
Utilitarianism is a form of secular normative ethics whereby the foundational idea is the greatest good for the greatest number, in order to maximise happiness.   This ethical belief stems from the late 18th century and continues to make subliminal impacts on everyday life. The philosophers involved include that of Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Peter Singer.
Bentham’s theory is quantitative, thus attempts to impose an objective system. Bentham, within “The Principles of Morals and Legislation” raised three main topics: what motivates human beings, the principle of utility and the hedonic calculus. This form of Utilitarianism is Act Utilitarianism and takes into consideration the consequence of the act itself. Similar to other philosophers, Bentham’s main issue was that of pain opposing pleasure, which drive us to fulfill acts to meet our requirements. Human beings seek to acquire pleasure and avoid pain, which, in return, reward us with the knowledge of knowing what is morally right and wrong. The principle of utility concerns itself with the greatest happiness for the greatest number, which was originally the idea of Hutcheson, but then developed by Bentham. Utility is the usefulness of the results of actions; Bentham was unambiguous that every person’s pleasure had equal value, although, Utilitarian’s intrinsic values differ from each others. The Hedonic calculus helps us to determine the valuable thing to do and work out the possible consequences of an action and makes the pain or pleasure, measurable to an extent: the intensity of the pleasure, the duration of the pleasure, the certainty of the pleasure, the remoteness of the pleasure, the richness of the pleasure, the purity of the pleasure and the extent of the pleasure. This method of testing helps to seek whether an action is morally right and the most pleasurable consequence, after weighing up all of the elements....