Disorders of Childhood and Cognitive Disorders

Mental retardation is characterized as those that have significantly subaverage intellectual function.   Those that fit in this category have an IQ of approximately 70 or below on individually administered IQ test.   Also, concurrent deficits or impairments in present adaptive functioning in at least two areas to include communication, self-care, home living, social/interpersonal skills use of community resources, self-direction, functional academic skills, work leisure, health, and or safety..   An example of this would be the person’s effectiveness in meeting the standards expected for his or her age by his or her cultural group.   Another characteristic of mental retardation is the onset is before the age of 18 years.   (Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence, 2013)
Learning disorders can be characterized by an individual’s achievement on individually administered, standardized tests in reading, mathematics, or written expression is substantially below that of the expected age, schooling, and level of intelligence.   The learning problems are best observed when the individual attempts to do daily living activities that require reading, mathematical, or writing skills.   People with learning disorders can be characterized by low self-esteem, and deficits in social skills.   These deficits lead to a nearly 40% drop-out rate in school which is approximately 1.5 times the average.   (Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence, 2013)
Motor skills disorders can be observed in people whose performances in daily activities that require motor coordination that is substantially below that which can be expected given the person’s chronological age and measured intelligence.   This can be witnessed when the patient is marked by delayed in achieving motor milestones, for example walking, crawling, or sitting.   These deficiencies also interfere with academic achievement or activities of daily living.   These disturbances...