Defining the Key Concepts and Principles of Assessment.

Defining the key concepts and principles of assessment.
The 3 most commonly used concepts of assessments are: criterion referencing; formative assessment and summative assessment.
The concept of Criterion referencing is generally associated with a ‘can do/can’t do’ (pass or fail) assessment. The learner has to demonstrate their competences to set criteria.   In this style of assessment the assessor is measuring what the learner can do. The learner may have multiple attempts to achieve the required criteria. Although linked with pass or fail assessments, it can be linked to a grading system which could show how well the learner can do the given assignment i.e.; pass, merit or distinction.
Formative assessment, also known as a continuous assessment is a highly motivating concept as it can be seen as a review rather than an assessment. Formative assessments give the learner an opportunity to resubmit work which has previously been deemed as insufficient to meet the given/set criteria. Hopefully, with the aid of feedback given via the assessor, the learner will not only meet all requirement set but will also attain a greater understanding of what was originally required, thus increasing learning. Formative assessment can also help in the individual progression of a student, which in turn helps maximise their potential. Therefore Formative assessment aids learning.
Summative assessment is a formal way of closing a stage of learning. This is usually done in the form of a test or exam. Once completed, learning can move forward to the next stage. In this concept the learner will study until competent and then tested on their knowledge. A judgement will be made and a certificate issued if the learner has meet or answered all the required criteria which has been set, either by an external governing body (City and Guilds) or in house/company training departments. If the learner fails to meet the given criteria then they would have to re-sit the exam. The same...