Part A. Research  CHOLERA

1. Define the term disease fully and scientifically.

The term disease is hard and difficult to define as it encompasses many factors. Studies have shown that whether people believe they are sick or ill depends on their class, gender, ethnicity, age, culture and availability of support and health clinics.
It is also hard to classify as the opposite of health as the term “health” is also hard to define. The World Health Organisation defines health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, and not merely the absent of disease or infirmity’. (Chidrawi, G. et al. 2008)
On a broad sense, disease can be defined as “any condition that adversely affects the normal functioning of any part of a living thing.” (Chidrawi, G. et al. 2008) However, this can be misleading and incorrect as something that occurs naturally eg. a child loosing a tooth or a women falling pregnant could be classified as a disease.
More scientific and detailed definitions have been provided and include the ones below.
⁃“A disordered or incorrectly functioning organ, part, structure, or system of the body resulting from the effect of genetic or development errors, infection, poisons, nutritional deficiency or imbalance, toxicity or unfavourable environmental factors”
⁃“Any abnormal condition in an organism that interferes with its vital physiological processes, caused by pathogenic microorganisms, parasites, unfavourable environmental, genetic or nutritional factors” (Biology Online, 2008)
⁃“A pathologic condition in which the normal functioning of an organism or body is impaired or disrupted in extreme pain, disfunction, distress or death” (Biology Online, 2008)

2. Describe CHOLERA in terms of its: cause, transmission, host response, major symptoms, treatment, prevention and control

Cholera is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhoea which can lead to dehydration and even death if left untreated (Ratini, M. 2014)