Apush Summer Assignment

The Articles of Confederation: America's First Constitution
The 13 colonies were joined together for joint action in dealing with common problems such as foreign affairs.
Congress had 2 major handicaps: 1) It had no power to regulate commerce, and this loophole left the states free to establish conflictingly laws regarding tariffs and navigation.   2) Congress couldn't enforce its tax collection program.   The states were NOT required to pay the government taxes, they were merely asked.
The Articles of Confederation had many faults, but it was a stepping stone towards the Constitution.

Landmarks in Land Laws
Land Ordinance of 1785: stated that the acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787: a uniform national land policy; created the Northwest Territories and gave the land to the government, the land could then be purchased by individuals; when a territory had 60,000 people, it might be admitted by Congress as a state, with all the privileges of the 13 other states.

The World's Ugly Duckling
Britain declined to make any commercial treaty with the colonies or to repeal its Navigation Laws (required the use of British ships to trade with Britain). Lord Sheffield argued in his pamphlet that Britain could win back America's trade without repealing the navigation laws.
The British remained in the Americas where they maintained their fur trade with the Indians.   The American states did not honor the treaty of peace in regard to debts and Loyalists.   The British primarily stayed because they wanted to keep the Indians on their side in case the Americans decided to attack Canada.
Spain was openly unfriendly to the Americans.   It closed off the Mississippi river to commerce in 1784.

The Horrid Specter of Anarchy
Shay's Rebellion: occurred in western Massachusetts in 1786; impoverished back-country farmers, who were losing their farms through mortgage...