World History

• Chapter 11

    • Motivation and Emotion

    • Definitions

    • Motivation: “The set of factors that initiate and direct behavior, usually toward the same goal.”

    • Emotions: “Psychological events involving:

        1) A physiological reaction, usually arousal

        2) Some kind of expressive reaction, such as a distinctive facial expression

        3) Some kind of subjective experience, such as the conscious feeling of being happy or sad.

    • Adaptive Problems

    • What activates goal-directed behavior?

        1) Reaction to environment

        2) Internal states / external events

    • What factors create hunger and control eating?

    • What factors promote sexual behavior?

        1) Survival of the individual -vs- survival of the species.

    • How are emotions expressed and experienced, and what functions do they serve?

        1) Adaptiveness of emotions

    • Activation of Behavior

    • Behavior usually has multiple causes, and these may be internal, external, or a combination of the two.

    • Internal Factors:

        1) Instincts: “Unlearned characteristic patterns of responding that are controlled by specific triggering stimuli in the world.”

        2) Drive: “A psychological state that arises in response to an internal physiological need, such as hunger or thirst.”

        3) Homeostasis: “The process through which the body maintains a steady state. Such as a constant internal temperature or an adequate amount of fluids.

    • External Factors:

        1) Incentive motivation: “External factors in the environment that exert pulling effects on our actions.”

    • Internal and External factors interact to produce behavior.

    • Achievement Motivation

    • “An internal drive or need for achievement that is possessed by all individuals to varying degrees.”

    • “Need for achievement”

    • How hard you will work depends on your expectations of success and...