Unit 4222-229

Unit 4222-229 – Undertake agreed pressure area care.

Outcome 1

Q1.   The main functions of the skin are
Secretion- The skin secretes sebum from the sebaceous glands, this is a fatty substance that lubricates the hair shafts, when combined with perspiration on the surface of the skin, and it creates a natural moisturizer which acts as a protective barrier against bacteria. If secretion levels are high, it leads to oily skin. If it low, it leads to dry skin.                                                                                             Heat Regulation- Warms and Cools Body.
Cooling - When the body becomes hot, the capillaries nearer the surface of the body vasodilate allowing more blood to reach the surface of the skin. The pores dilate allowing the heat to be lost from the body. This causes the skin to flush - known as hyperemia. Sweating will occur simultaneously and the evaporation of perspiration from the surface has a cooling effect on the body. Warming- When the body becomes cold, the capillaries nearer the surface of the body vasoconstrict so that blood is moved away from the extremities to the major organs, thus ensuring they are kept warm. As a result the skin appears pale and heat loss is inhibited. The erector pili muscles contract causing body hair to stand on end, trapping air against the surface of the skin, which is then warmed by body heat. Shivering occurs, caused by rapid and repeated muscle contractions which work to raise body temperature.                                                       Absorption- The skin is a waterproof covering but some chemical substances, such as drugs and essential oils, can penetrate the skin through the layers, the hair follicles and sweat glands. The amount of penetration is affected by the health and condition of the skin. Splits, cuts, tears and irregularities caused by disease or disorder increase the risk of infection.
Protection- The skin acts as a barrier to the body's invasion by...