Theory/Theorist | Explanation of key ideas | Example of impact on practise |
Arnold Gesell 1880-1961 | 1: Milestones-Stages of development.2: Language Development-Speech development appropriate to age.3: Proximo Distal-Development from trunk of the body. | 1: Growth chart, observations.2: Encourage correct grammar.3: Activates and physical games. A young child can throw and catch a ball, but an older child can hit that ball with a bat. |
Erik Erikson 1902-1994 | 1: Psychosocial-Development based on social experience.2: Psychodynamic-The balance between allowing dependence and encouraging independence.3: Emotional Development-Impact of parents/society on personality. | 1: A child roleplaying with a doll in the home corner.2: Toilet training, putting own aprons on, picking own food at break time.3: Good role models, always showing value and respect. |
B.F Skinner 1904-1990 | 1: Reward-Encourage positive behaviour.2: Operant Conditioning-Association is made between behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour.3: Consequences-Behaviour and some consequences weakened their behaviour. | 1: Praise-Say please/thank you.2: Willing to complete a puzzle to get praise or recognition.3: Positive behaviour is reinforced. Negative behaviour is discouraged. |
Alfred Bandura 1925-current | 1: Imitation-Copying behaviour from significant adults.2: Observational theory-3: Social Cognitive theory-Bobo Doll experiment. | 1: Role play-shop keepers, teachers, mummy etc.2: Relationships between parents and staff i.e. meet and greet.3: Acting like mum or dad talking on the phone. |
Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934 | 1: Language-Development through 3 stages.2: Cognitive-Adults/peers assist child’s progression.3: Zone of proximal development. | 1: Staff should be encouraged to ask open ended questions.2: Older children are encouraged to help younger children.3: Assess development level and then potential level. |