The First Crusade

During the end of the eleventh century, all of Europe was caught up in territory disputes.   Nations argued where previous wars and imperialism left borders, but every nation wanted one territory in particular (Crusades).   Jerusalem, the most sought after land in the eastern hemisphere, became a perpetual battleground for crusades and jihads.   Because of high religious tensions between the Christian nations of Europe and the Islamic nations in the Middle East, a series of wars were fought over the ‘holy land.’   The Christians desired it because the Messiah, Jesus, was believed to be born there and the Islamic people believe that the prophet, Muhammad, was sighted here.   The first of these holy wars took place from 1096 to 1099 (History Learning Site).
Several acts fueled the Eastern nations of Europe.   The first of these was the capturing of Jerusalem by Muslims in 1076 (History Learning Site).   The second was the preaching of both Pope Urban II and Peter the Hermit.   The Pope was notified of the threat by the king of the Byzantine Empire, which lies near Turkish territory.   The Pope then traveled throughout the European countries rallying armies to take back the holy land.   (The First Crusade)   Urban also held a council at Clermont-Ferrand in Auvergne on Tuesday 27, November 1096.   The assembly consisted of archbishops, bishops, abbots, knights and peasants alike.   (Council of Clermont)
Letters were sent to all Christian nations to aid in the crusade.   The call was appeased by so many that the church was not able to control the crowd.   The most renown of the crusade leaders were Count Raymond of Toulouse, Godfrey and Baldwin Bouillon who led the French and Germans from the Rhineland, Robert, the eldest son of William the Conqueror, from Normandy, Bohemond, son of Robert Guiscard and his nephew, Tancred.   Many peasants began to leave with accompaniment of nobles.   (Council of Clermont)
The majority that ventured prematurely were lead by Peter the Hermit, a monk...