Tda 2.1: Child and Young Person’s Development

Age Physical Intellectual Language & Communication Emotional Social Spiritual
Birth GMS –
• Lie supine (on their backs) with head to one side
• When placed on their front (their prone position), lie with the head turned to one side and their knees tucked under the abdomen
• If pulled into sitting position, the head will lag, the back curves over and the head falls forward
• Can turn from side to back
• Can lift their head briefly from prone position
• Arm and leg movements are jerky and uncontrolled
• Have head lag when pulled into sitting position
• Keep their head in central position when lying supine
• Can lift head and chest off bed in prone position, supported on forearms
• Have almost no head lag in sitting position
• Can kick their legs vigorously, both separately and together
• Can wave their arms and bring their hands together over the body
• Can usually hold their hands tightly closed
• Often hold their thumbs tucked in under their fingers
• React to loud sounds, but by 1 month, may be soothed by particular music
• Turn their head towards light and stare at bright, shiny objects
• Are fascinated by human faces and gaze attentively at carer’s face when fed or held
• Open hands to grasp adult’s finger
• Show interest and excitement by facial expression
• Move head to follow adult movements
• Watch their hands and play with their fingers
• Hold a rattle for a brief time before dropping it • Babies feel pain
• Their faces, abdomens, hands and the soles of their feet are very sensitive to touch
• They perceive the movement that they make, and the way that other people move them about but their senses e.g. they give a ‘startle response if they are moved suddenly
• Even a newborn baby will turn to sound
• Babies like sweet tastes e.g. breast milk
• Babies turn to the smell of breast
• Can focus on objects 20 cm away
• Sensitive to light
• Look at human faces – eye contact
• Track movements of people and objects
• Scan the...