Richard Layard Stated That ‘Happiness Comes from Outside and Within’. Explain This Statement, Drawing on Evidence on Chapters 2 and 4 of the Module.

Christine Bussey Y183 EMA Task 1, part A

Richard Layard stated that ‘Happiness comes from outside and within’. Explain this statement, drawing on evidence on chapters 2 and 4 of the module.

Happiness must come from both external and internal factors.

Happiness is a positive feeling which covers a mixture of emotions from joy and contentment (Spoors et al 2011, p7). When Layard states ‘outside’ he is referring to peoples relationships and social identity,(their environment) when stating ‘within’ he is referring to biological factors, such as brain states and the physical health of an individual. This essay will show how relationships and biological factors affect happiness of an individual.

External influences affect happiness in many ways which include work, social identity, and poverty; the most important factor in this is relationships, whether this is family, partners or friends. Relationships can cause pleasure and pain, without them people would have a lonely life, be socially isolated and emotionally deprived. (Spoors et al, 2011, p 77)

People need to feel needed, supported and valued. From the moment babies are born we form an attachment.   In an observational study Mary Ainsworth (1978, cited in Spoors et al 2011, p82) suggested having a secure attachment at an early stage influence intellectual development, confidence with the world and are more comfortable in themselves which helps interaction with others. However, there may be a reverse affect if the attachment is damaged or broken. A child that has an insecure relationship, are not able to have positive experiences in life due to lack of caring people around them to give emotional support. This research demonstrates importance of external factor of nurture and how it affects happiness.

Jarmila Koluchova (1972, cited in Spoors et al 2011, p83) performed a case study which indicates that having a lack of attachment in early life can later be reversed. She studied twins who were...