Qcf Certificate Level 2 in Children and Young People’s Workforce Mandatory Units: Unit Tda 2.1 / Child and Young Person Development

Learning Outcome 1 / Know the main stages of child and young person development

Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years.

From birth through to adulthood children continually grow, develop, and learn. A child’s development can be measured through; social, emotional, intellectual, physical, behavioural and language developmental milestones.

All children and young people follow a similar pattern of development so the order in which each child advances from one milestone to the next will be roughly the same.


A child's physical development, from birth through to 19 years, follows the bellow patterns:

Simple to complex
- Standing before the child can walk.
- Walking before the child can; run, skip or hop, ride a bike.
- Simple words to challenging sentences.

From head to toe
- A child's physical control and coordination begins with the head and works it's way down the body.
- This is why a baby can hold it's head up long before he/she can walk etc.

From inner to outer
- Sees the child first gain control of the larger muscles in the centre of the body (legs, shoulders and arms) finally through to the smaller muscles found in the outer parts of the body (fingers, hands, wrists and eyes).
- Gross motor skills use single limb movements.
- Gross motor skills use the larger muscles of the body. For instance, leg muscles for running/walking and arm muscles for exercises such as climbing, throwing and catching.
- Fine motor skills is the use of the hands, fingers, wrists and eyes.
- Fine motor skills include; writing, painting, tying shoelaces, using a knife & fork and eye to hand coordination.

From general to specific
- Muscle growth begins with more general abilities (like raising of head) and becomes more specific (like writing, drawing etc) as the child develops.
- General physical actions would include the whole body of a baby responding when...