Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity:

* Velocity of light is constant regardless of relative motion of the sources and observer.

* All inertial frame of reference are equal and no inertial frame of reference is truer than others.

* Special relativity only holds in inertial frame of reference.

Impacts of Special Relativity:

1) Relative Simultaneity

* Events that take place in space at the same time are considered to be simultaneous.

* Two events that are simultaneous to one observer may not necessary appear simultaneous to another observer who is in a different frame of reference.

2) Time Dilation

* Time dilation is the phenomenon that the time appears to go slower in a moving frame with constant velocity than in a stationary frame.

3) Length Contraction

* Length contraction is the phenomenon that length of a moving object appears shorter to a stationary observer than when the object is at rest.

4) Mass Dilation

* Mass dilation is the phenomenon that mass of a moving object appears heavier to a stationary observer than when the object is at rest.

5) E=mc²

* E-Energy(J)

M-mass (kg)

C-speed of light (3×108m/s)

Experiment 1:

NIST scientists performed the new "time dilation" experiments by comparing operations of a pair of the world's best experimental atomic clocks.

Aim: To prove time passes more slowly when you move faster

Equipment: atomic clocks, an observer, airplane.

Procedure:

1. Put two clocks to unequal gravitational forces due to their different elevations above the surface of the Earth. One put in the lab, the other put on the flying airplane.

2. Let the observer be moving to observe.

Discussion:

According to Einstein's theory of gravity and space time, clocks in strong gravity tick slower than clocks in weak gravity, so time passes more slowly when the atomic clock is put in a higher elevation.

Results:

1. The higher...