Peacebuilding in the Pacific

Peacebuilding Policy in the Pacific

A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Political Philosophy at the University of Canterbury By Gary Martin

University of Canterbury

Table of Contents

List of Figures and Tables Abbreviations Abstract

i ii v

Chapter One:

Beyond Conflict Settlement

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5

Introduction Objectives Internal Conflict The Pacific Region What can be done about conflict? Prevention, management, resolution and beyond

1 2 3 6

7 12 14

1.6 1.7

Defining Success and Failure Outline of Chapters

Chapter Two:

Peacebuilding: A Theoretical Framework

2.1 2.2 2.3

Introduction Historical Overview: Peacebuilding and the United Nations Dimensions of Peacebuilding

17 18 19

2.3a 2.3b 2.3c 2.3d 2.3e 2.4 2.5 Framework Conclusion

Security Factors Political Factors Judicial Factors Economic Factors Psychological Factors

20 24 30 31 33 34 36

Chapter Three:

Internal Conflict: Causes, Consequences and the Pacific Region

3.1 3.2

Introduction Nature of Internal Conflict 3.2a 3.2b Interstate versus Intrastate Prevalence of Internal Conflict: Causes and Consequences

37 37 38 40 43 44 47 51 52 54 55 57


Conflict in the Pacific 3.3a 3.3b Overview of the region Causes of Conflict in the Pacific


Conflict Resolution in the Pacific Region 3.4a 3.4b 3.4c Pacific Islands Forum Australia and New Zealand International Organisations



Chapter Four:

The Policy of Peacebuilding in East Timor

4.1 4.2

Introduction Causes of the Conflict 4.2a Santa Cruz Massacre

58 59 60 62 63 63 64 66 66 68 69 71 71 73

4.3 4.4

Conflict Summary Peacebuilding in East Timor 4.4a 4.4b 4.4c 4.4d 4.4e 4.4f 4.4g After the Vote of Independence Security Sector Reforms Trust and Confidence Building Measures Governmental Reform Judicial Reform Economic Reform Community Education and Reconciliation

4.5 4.6

Summary of...
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